Reconstruction: The Hebrew Gospel / UrMark

As noted in the Introduction, in this series of posts I attempt a reconstruction of the earliest Gospel of Mark—a text that I identify with the “Hebrew Gospel” (a view, incidentally, not found anywhere else). The Hebrew Gospel/UrMark is “Stage 2a” christology (Jewish Christian, c. 100 CE). Jesus is the indwelling divine spirit available to all. “Jesus [the] Christ” is the human prophet who first received the spirit Jesus—the model for the rest of us.

The following is not intended to be textually precise, and itself probably represents an intermediate theological stage. Already we are in an advanced theological milieu with developed symbolism and allegory. The roots are gnostic. Though a founding prophet is still barely perceptible in this reconstruction—e.g., in the teaching activity in Judea, acrid interactions with “Pharisees and scribes,” and crucifixion—it principally reflects an early Christian theology (“Stage 2” christology) of great intensity and must date sometime in the first century CE. According to my view (see NazarethGate, Chapter 14) this was a full century after the death of the founding prophet, Yeshu ha-Notsri, who was ritually stoned by the Sanhedrin and then hung on a tree (“crucified”) on the eve of Passover, probably in the later 70s BCE. This was a decade before the Roman conquest of Palestine. I have more to say about Yeshu here.

This reconstruction rests on the now virtually certain theses that (1) the Gospel of Mark, as received, dates to the second century of our era, and (2) that it was written principally in order to rebut the theology of the arch-heretic Marcion of Pontus, who flourished in the first half of the second century CE. In canonical Mark, Jesus has completely separated from John (“Stage 3” christology). “He” is no longer purely spirit, but has flesh and an invented biography worthy of the awe-inspiriting theios aner, the Hellenist divine man (cf. Apollonius of Tyana, etc).

The best way that I have found to extract the Hebrew Gospel/UrMark from the present Gospel of Mark is:
     (1) to remove all Pauline/Marcionite elements; and
     (2) to remove all “Stage 3” late Catholicizing elements.
If we are able to accomplish these excisions, then we will be left with a Jewish Christian document (“Stage 2a” in my typology) that has not yet been Paulinized (the cosmic redemptive act was Jesus’ death on the cross) or Catholicized (“Jesus” = Jesus the Nazarene/of Nazareth).

The criteria used for color coding are discussed here. The resultant color coding is as follows:

[Contained in the Hebrew Gospel / UrMark]

Green: Possible/probable, or amended in UrMark.

STAGE 1: Gnostic. To c. 50 CE. “Jesus” is the saving gnosis.
                           Black: May contain historical elements going back to Yeshu ha-Notsri.
                           [Blue] Logia/parables of Yeshu.

STAGE 2a: Jewish Christian. [Brown] C. 50–c. 150 CE. “Jesus” is a divine spiritual entity sent from Yahweh indwelling any worthy human through the grace of God/obedience to God. But the first in whom the Jesus dwelled (the prophet Yeshu ha-Notsri by my reckoning) was known as “the first-begotten Son” of God, the “Christ” (Messiah; NTA I:177.2). This messiah was only a model for emulation, not the unattainable figure of later Christianity. Possessing the Jesus (which we can all do, and should do) enables repentance and the forgiveness of sins. The spirit Jesus is divine, but the humans in whom the Jesus dwells are not.

For introduction and some background on this reconstruction, the reader is directed here.
This page will be updated continuously until the entire Gospel of Mark is represented.
The entire canonical Gospel of Mark (color coded) is found here.

The Hebrew Gospel / UrMark

Chapter 1

[1] The beginning of the gospel of Jesus [the] Christ. [Note: “Jesus” has supplanted the man “John.”—R.S.]
[2] As it is written in Isaiah the prophet, “Behold, I send my messenger before thy face, who shall prepare thy way;
[3] the voice of one crying in the wilderness: Prepare the way of the Lord, make his paths straight.”

[9] In those days Jesus was baptized in the Jordan. [Note: “Jordan” and “water” are symbols of gnosis.—R.S.]
[10] And when he came up out of the water, immediately he saw the heavens opened and the Spirit descending upon him like a dove;
[11] and a voice came from heaven [saying], “You are my beloved Son; with you I am well pleased.”

[12] The Spirit immediately drove him out into the wilderness.
[13] And he was in the wilderness forty days, tempted by Satan; and he was with the wild beasts; and the angels ministered to him.

[14] Jesus came into Galilee, preaching the gospel of God,
[15] and saying, “The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at hand; repent.”

[21] And they went into Capernaum; and immediately on the sabbath he taught.
[22] And they were astonished at his teaching, for he taught them as one who had authority, and not as the scribes.
[24] [He was] Jesus the Nazarene, the Holy One of God.
[27] And they were all amazed, so that they questioned among themselves, saying, “What is this? A new teaching!”

[28] And at once his fame spread everywhere throughout all the surrounding region of Galilee.

[35] And in the morning, a great while before day, he rose and went out to a lonely place.
[37] And they found him and said to him, “Every one is searching for you.”
[38] And he said to them, “Let us go on to the next towns, that I may preach there also.”
[39] And he went throughout all Galilee, preaching.

Chapter 2

[16] And the scribes of the Pharisees, when they saw that he was eating with sinners and tax collectors, said to his disciples, “Why does he eat with tax collectors and sinners?”
[17] And when Jesus heard it, he said to them,
[21] “No one sews a piece of unshrunk cloth on an old garment; if he does, the patch tears away from it, the new from the old, and a worse tear is made.
 [Note: Still within Judaism, the “Jesus” followers thought of themselves as a new dispensation. Cf. the DSS.—R.S.]
[22] And no one puts new wine into old wineskins; if he does, the wine will burst the skins, and the wine is lost, and so are the skins; but new wine is for fresh skins.”

[23] One sabbath he was going through the grainfields; and as they made their way his disciples began to pluck heads of grain.
[24] And the Pharisees said to him, “Look, why are they doing what is not lawful on the sabbath?”
[25] And he said to them, “Have you never read what David did, when he was in need and was hungry, he and those who were with him:
[26] how he entered the house of God, when Abi’athar was high priest, and ate the bread of the Presence, which it is not lawful for any but the priests to eat, and also gave it to those who were with him?”

[27] And he said to them, “The sabbath was made for man, not man for the sabbath.”

Chapter 3

[Note: I suggest that vss. 22–30 originally followed v. 6, and that vss. 31–35 originally followed v. 21.
This reconstruction has been amended accordingly.—R.S.]

[4] And he said to them, “Is it lawful on the sabbath to do good or to do harm, to save life or to kill?” But they were silent.
[5] And he looked around at them with anger, grieved at their hardness of heart.

[6] The Pharisees went out, and immediately held counsel with the Herodians against him, how to destroy him.

[22] And the scribes who came down from Jerusalem said, “He is possessed by Beelzebul, and by the prince of demons he casts out the demons.”

[23] And he called them to him, and said to them in parables, “How can Satan cast out Satan?
[24] If a kingdom is divided against itself, that kingdom cannot stand.

[25] And if a house is divided against itself, that house will not be able to stand.

[26] And if Satan has risen up against himself and is divided, he cannot stand, but is coming to an end.

[27] But no one can enter a strong man’s house and plunder his goods, unless he first binds the strong man; then indeed he may plunder his house.
[28] “Truly, I say to you, all sins will be forgiven the sons of men, and whatever blasphemies they utter;

[29] but whoever blasphemes against the Holy Spirit never has forgiveness, but is guilty of an eternal sin” —

[30] for they had said, “He has an unclean spirit.”

[19b] Then he went home.
[21] And when his family heard it, they went out to seize him, for people were saying, “He is beside himself.”

[31] And his mother and his brothers came; and standing outside they sent to him and called him.

[32] And [those] sitting about him said to him, “Your mother and your brothers are outside, asking for you.”
[33] And he replied, “Who are my mother and my brothers?”
[34] And looking around on those who sat about him, he said, “Here are my mother and my brothers!
[35] Whoever does the will of God is my brother, and sister, and mother.”

Chapter 4

[1] Again he began to teach beside the sea. And a very large crowd gathered about him, so that he got into a boat and sat in it on the sea; and the whole crowd was beside the sea on the land. [Note: Allegorical. “Sea” = the water of gnosis, in which Jesus resides. Mankind is on the “land” of ignorance.—R.S.]
[2] And he taught them many things in parables, and in his teaching he said to them:
[3] “Listen! A sower went out to sow.
[4] And as he sowed, some seed fell along the path, and the birds came and devoured it.
[5] Other seed fell on rocky ground, where it had not much soil, and immediately it sprang up, since it had no depth of soil;
[6] and when the sun rose it was scorched, and since it had no root it withered away.
[7] Other seed fell among thorns and the thorns grew up and choked it, and it yielded no grain.
[8] And other seeds fell into good soil and brought forth grain, growing up and increasing and yielding thirtyfold and sixtyfold and a hundredfold.”
[9] And he said, “He who has ears to hear, let him hear.”

[10] And when he was alone, those who were about him asked him concerning the parables.
[13] And he said to them, “Do you not understand this parable? How then will you understand all the parables?
[14] The sower sows the word.
[15] And these are the ones along the path, where the word is sown; when they hear, Satan immediately comes and takes away the word which is sown in them.
[16] And these in like manner are the ones sown upon rocky ground, who, when they hear the word, immediately receive it with joy;
[17] and they have no root in themselves, but endure for a while; then, when tribulation or persecution arises on account of the word, immediately they fall away.
[18] And others are the ones sown among thorns; they are those who hear the word,
[19] but the cares of the world, and the delight in riches, and the desire for other things, enter in and choke the word, and it proves unfruitful.
[20] But those that were sown upon the good soil are the ones who hear the word and accept it and bear fruit, thirtyfold and sixtyfold and a hundredfold.”

[21] And he said to them, “Is a lamp brought in to be put under a bushel, or under a bed, and not on a stand?
[22] For there is nothing hid, except to be made manifest; nor is anything secret, except to come to light.
[23] If any man has ears to hear, let him hear.”

[24] And he said to them, “Take heed what you hear; the measure you give will be the measure you get, and still more will be given you.
[25] For to him who has will more be given; and from him who has not, even what he has will be taken away.”

[26] And he said, “The kingdom of God is as if a man should scatter seed upon the ground,
[27] and should sleep and rise night and day, and the seed should sprout and grow, he knows not how.
[28] The earth produces of itself, first the blade, then the ear, then the full grain in the ear.
[29] But when the grain is ripe, at once he puts in the sickle, because the harvest has come.”

[30] And he said, “With what can we compare the kingdom of God, or what parable shall we use for it?
[31] It is like a grain of mustard seed, which, when sown upon the ground, is the smallest of all the seeds on earth;
[32] yet when it is sown it grows up and becomes the greatest of all shrubs, and puts forth large branches, so that the birds of the air can make nests in its shade.”

[33] With many such parables he spoke the word to them, as they were able to hear it;
[34] he did not speak to them without a parable.

Chapter 5

[1] And he went to the other side of the sea;1
[21] and when he had crossed again to the other side2 [he said]
[34] “Your faith has made you well; go in peace.

Chapter 5 notes:

1. Etymologies: Cf. Jesus (Heb. “Joshua”) crossing the Jordan (Jos 3); in OT also linked to Moses and the Hebrews crossing the Yam Suf (Heb. “Sea of the Ending” = death [Jos 4:23; Ps 106:9; also Ex 15:4, 22; Deut 11:4; Ne 9:9]).

2. Verses 1 and 21 presuppose the symbolism water = gnosis, and crossing the water = attaining understanding/overcoming death. This very archaic concept was known already in Bronze Age Mesopotamia. It informed the crossing of the Yam Suf (later falsely, “Red Sea”) by the Hebrews. The word “Hebrew” itself means “cross over” (BDB 717). More on this important concept (with Christian connections) is found here.

Chapter 6

[1] He went away from there and came to his own country; and his disciples followed him.
[2] and many who heard him were astonished, saying, “Where did this man get all this? What is the wisdom given to him?
[6] And he went about among the villages teaching.

[8] He charged [his disciples] to take nothing for their journey except a staff; no bread, no bag, no money in their belts;
[9] but to wear sandals and not put on two tunics.1
[12] So they went out and preached that men should repent.

[45] Immediately [the spirit Jesus] made his disciples go before2 him to the other side.3
[48] And they were making headway painfully. And about the fourth watch of the night he came to them.4
[52] But they did not understand, for their hearts were hardened.

Chapter 6 notes:

1 Compare Buddhist precedent: “For clothes, rag-robes are trifling things, blameless and easily gotten.
            For lodging, the foot of a tree is a trifling thing, blameless and easily gotten.
            For food, alms of scraps are trifling things, blameless and easily gotten.
            For medicine, ammonia is a trifling thing, blameless and easily gotten.
            Truly, brethren, when a disciple is content with trifles that are easily gotten, this is a great benefit to his wandering.” (Ittivutaka 4.2.)

2 πρoαγειν:
   • “Hasten to be saved without being urged! Instead, be eager of your own accord and, if possible, arrive even before me…” (Apocryphon of James, NHL 1.2.7.)
   • They both ran, but the [beloved disciple] outran Peter and reached the tomb first… went in… saw and believed. (Jn 20:4, 8.)
   • “Hasten, apply unflagging effort and exertion [for enlightenment], even as if your hair were on fire.” (Buddhist, Anguttara Nikaya 10.51.)

3 For notes on “crossing over” see here.

4 Compare the appearances of the master/bridegroom/Jesus at night (Mk 13:36; Mt 25:6; Secret Mark).

Chapter 7

[5] And the Pharisees and the scribes asked him, “Why do your disciples not live according to the tradition of the elders, but eat [what is] defiled?”
[6] And he said to them, “Well did Isaiah prophesy of you hypocrites, as it is written, ‘This people honors me with their lips,
but their heart is far from me;
[7] in vain do they worship me, teaching as doctrines the precepts of men.’
[8] You leave the commandment of God, and hold fast the tradition of men.”

[9] And he said to them, “You have a fine way of rejecting the commandment of God, in order to keep your tradition!
[10] For Moses said, ‘Honor your father and your mother’; and, ‘He who speaks evil of father or mother, let him surely die’;
[11] but you say, ‘If a man tells his father or his mother, What you would have gained from me is Corban’ (that is, given to God)—
[12] then you no longer permit him to do anything for his father or mother,
[13] thus making void the word of God through your tradition which you hand on. And many such things you do.”

[14] And he called the people to him again, and said to them, “Hear me, all of you, and understand:
[15] there is nothing outside a man which by going into him can defile him; but the things which come out of a man are what defile him.”

[17] And when he had entered the house, and left the people, his disciples asked him about the parable.
[18] And he said to them, “Then are you also without understanding? Do you not see that whatever goes into a man from outside cannot defile him,
[19] since it enters, not his heart but his stomach, and so passes on?”

[20] And he said, “What comes out of a man is what defiles a man.
[21] For from within, out of the heart of man, come evil thoughts, fornication, theft, murder, adultery,
[22] coveting, wickedness, deceit, licentiousness, envy, slander, pride, foolishness.
[23] All these evil things come from within, and they defile a man.”

[24] And from there he arose and went away to the region of Tyre and Sidon. And he entered a house, and would not have any one know it; yet he could not be hid.
[25] But immediately a woman, whose little daughter was possessed by an unclean spirit, heard of him, and came and fell down at his feet.
[26] Now the woman was a Greek, a Syrophoenician by birth. And she begged him to cast the demon out of her daughter.
[27] And he said to her, “Let the children first be fed, for it is not right to take the children’s bread and throw it to the dogs.”
[28] But she answered him, “Yes, Lord; yet even the dogs under the table eat the children’s crumbs.”
[29] And he said to her, “For this saying you may go your way; the demon has left your daughter.”
[30] And she went home, and found the child lying in bed, and the demon gone.

Chapter 8

[10] And he sent them away; and immediately he got into the boat with his disciples, and went to the district of Dalmanutha.
[11] The Pharisees came and began to argue with him, seeking from him a sign from heaven, to test him.
[12] And he sighed deeply in his spirit, and said, “Why does this generation seek a sign? Truly, I say to you, no sign shall be given to this generation.”
[13] And he left them, and getting into the boat again he departed to the other side.

[14] Now they had forgotten to bring bread; and they had only one loaf with them in the boat.
[15] And he cautioned them, saying, “Take heed, beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and the leaven of Herod.”
[16] And they discussed it with one another, saying, “We have no bread.”
[17] And being aware of it, Jesus said to them, “Why do you discuss the fact that you have no bread? Do you not yet perceive or understand? Are your hearts hardened?
[18] Having eyes do you not see, and having ears do you not hear? And do you not remember?

[21] And he said to them, “Do you not yet understand?”

[34] And he said to them,
[35] “Whoever would save his life will lose it; and whoever loses his life for my sake and the gospel’s [sake] will save it.
[36] For what does it profit a man, to gain the whole world and forfeit his life?
[37] For what can a man give in return for his life?”

Chapter 9

[1] And he said to them, “Truly, I say to you, there are some standing here who will not taste death before they see that the kingdom of God has come.” [Realized eschatology through the acquisition of gnosis.—RS]

[2] And after six days Jesus took with him Peter and James and John, and led them up a high mountain apart by themselves; and he was transfigured before them,
[3] and his garments became glistening, intensely white, as no fuller on earth could bleach them.
[4] And there appeared to them Elijah with Moses; and they were talking to Jesus.

[33] And they came to Capernaum; and when he was in the house he asked them, “What were you discussing on the way?”
[34] But they were silent; for on the way they had discussed with one another who was the greatest.
[35] And he sat down and called the twelve; and he said to them,
“If any one would be first, he must be last of all and servant of all.”

[40] “For he that is not against us is for us.”

[41] For truly, I say to you, whoever gives you a cup of water to drink because you bear the name of Christ, will by no means lose his reward.” [This is the first in a series of sayings teaching the spiritual law of karma.—RS]

[42] “Whoever causes one of these little ones who believe in me to sin, it would be better for him if a great millstone were hung round his neck and he were thrown into the sea.”

[43] “And if your hand causes you to sin, cut it off; it is better for you to enter life maimed than with two hands to go to hell, to the unquenchable fire.
[45] And if your foot causes you to sin, cut it off; it is better for you to enter life lame than with two feet to be thrown into hell.
[47] And if your eye causes you to sin, pluck it out; it is better for you to enter the kingdom of God with one eye than with two eyes to be thrown into hell,
[48] where their worm does not die, and the fire is not quenched.”

Chapter 10

[1] And he left there and went to the region of Judea and beyond the Jordan, and crowds gathered to him again; and again, as his custom was, he taught them.
[2] And Pharisees came up and in order to test him asked, “Is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife?”
[3] He answered them, “What did Moses command you?”
[4] They said, “Moses allowed a man to write a certificate of divorce, and to put her away.”
[5] But Jesus said to them, “For your hardness of heart he wrote you this commandment.
[6] But from the beginning of creation, ‘God made them male and female.’
[7] ‘For this reason a man shall leave his father and mother and be joined to his wife,
[8] and the two shall become one flesh.’ So they are no longer two but one flesh.
[9] What therefore God has joined together, let not man put asunder.”
[10] And in the house the disciples asked him again about this matter.
[11] And he said to them, “Whoever divorces his wife and marries another, commits adultery against her;
[12] and if she divorces her husband and marries another, she commits adultery.”

[13] And they were bringing children to him, that he might touch them; and the disciples rebuked them.
[14] But when Jesus saw it he was indignant, and said to them, “Let the children come to me, do not hinder them; for to such belongs the kingdom of God.

[15] Truly, I say to you, whoever does not receive the kingdom of God like a child shall not enter it.”
[16] And he took them in his arms and blessed them, laying his hands upon them.

[17] And as he was setting out on his journey, a man ran up and knelt before him, and asked him, “Good Teacher, what must I do to inherit eternal life?”
[18] And Jesus said to him,
“Why do you call me good? No one is good but God alone.
[19] You know the commandments: ‘Do not kill, Do not commit adultery, Do not steal, Do not bear false witness, Do not defraud, Honor your father and mother.'”
[20] And he said to him, “Teacher, all these I have observed from my youth.”
[21] And Jesus looking upon him loved him, and said to him, “You lack one thing; go, sell what you have, and give to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven; and come, follow me.”
[22] At that saying his countenance fell, and he went away sorrowful; for he had great possessions.
[23] And Jesus looked around and said to his disciples, “How hard it will be for those who have riches to enter the kingdom of God!”
[24] And the disciples were amazed at his words. But Jesus said to them again, “Children, how hard it is to enter the kingdom of God!

[25] It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of God.”
[26] And they were exceedingly astonished, and said to him, “Then who can be saved?”
[27] Jesus looked at them and said, “With men it is impossible, but not with God; for all things are possible with God.”
[28] Peter began to say to him, “Lo, we have left everything and followed you.”
[29] Jesus said, “Truly, I say to you, there is no one who has left house or brothers or sisters or mother or father or children or lands, for my sake and for the gospel,
[30] who will not receive a hundredfold now in this time, houses and brothers and sisters and mothers and children and lands, with persecutions, and in the age to come eternal life.

[31] But many that are first will be last, and the last first.
[43] Whoever would be great among you must be your servant,
[44] and whoever would be first among you must be slave of all.”

Chapter 11

[1] And when they drew near to Jerusalem, to Bethphage and Bethany, at the Mount of Olives,
[9] those who went before and those who followed cried out, “Hosanna! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord!
[10] Blessed is the kingdom of our father David that is coming! Hosanna in the highest!”

[11] And he entered Jerusalem, and went into the temple;
[17] and he taught, and said to them,
“Is it not written, ‘My house shall be called a house of prayer for all the nations’? But you have made it a den of robbers.”
[18] And the chief priests and the scribes heard it and sought a way to destroy him; for they feared him, because all the multitude was astonished at his teaching.

[25] [And he taught] “Whenever you stand praying, forgive, if you have anything against any one; so that your Father also who is in heaven may forgive you your trespasses.” [A karmic saying.—R.S.]
[27] And the chief priests and the scribes and the elders came to him,
[28] and they said to him, “By what authority are you doing these things, or who gave you this authority to do them?”

Chapter 12

[1] And he began to speak to them in parables. “A man planted a vineyard, and set a hedge around it, and dug a pit for the wine press, and built a tower, and let it out to tenants, and went into another country.
[2] When the time came, he sent a servant to the tenants, to get from them some of the fruit of the vineyard.
[3] And they took him and beat him, and sent him away empty-handed.
[4] Again he sent to them another servant, and they wounded him in the head, and treated him shamefully.
[5] And he sent another, and him they killed; and so with many others, some they beat and some they killed.
[6] He had still one other, a beloved son; finally he sent him to them, saying, ‘They will respect my son.’
[7] But those tenants said to one another, ‘This is the heir; come, let us kill him, and the inheritance will be ours.’
[8] And they took him and killed him, and cast him out of the vineyard.
[9] What will the owner of the vineyard do? He will come and destroy the tenants, and give the vineyard to others.
[10] Have you not read this scripture: ‘The very stone which the builders rejected
has become the head of the corner;
[11] this was the Lord’s doing, and it is marvelous in our eyes’?”

[12] And they tried to arrest him, but feared the multitude, for they perceived that he had told the parable against them; so they left him and went away.
[13] And they sent to him some of the Pharisees and some of the Herodians, to entrap him in his talk.
[14] And they came and said to him, “Teacher, we know that you are true, and care for no man; for you do not regard the position of men, but truly teach the way of God. Is it lawful to pay taxes to Caesar, or not?
[15] Should we pay them, or should we not?” But knowing their hypocrisy, he said to them, “Why put me to the test? Bring me a coin, and let me look at it.”
[16] And they brought one. And he said to them, “Whose likeness and inscription is this?” They said to him, “Caesar’s.”
[17] Jesus said to them,
“Render to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s, and to God the things that are God’s.” And they were amazed at him.

[18] And Sadducees came to him, who say that there is no resurrection; and they asked him a question, saying,
[19] “Teacher, Moses wrote for us that if a man’s brother dies and leaves a wife, but leaves no child, the man must take the wife, and raise up children for his brother.
[20] There were seven brothers; the first took a wife, and when he died left no children;
[21] and the second took her, and died, leaving no children; and the third likewise;
[22] and the seven left no children. Last of all the woman also died.
[23] In the resurrection whose wife will she be? For the seven had her as wife.”
[24] Jesus said to them, “Is not this why you are wrong, that you know neither the scriptures nor the power of God?
[25] For when they rise from the dead, they neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are like angels in heaven.
[26] And as for the dead being raised, have you not read in the book of Moses, in the passage about the bush, how God said to him, ‘I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob’?
[27] He is not God of the dead, but of the living; you are quite wrong.”

[28] And one of the scribes came up and heard them disputing with one another, and seeing that he answered them well, asked him, “Which commandment is the first of all?”
[29] Jesus answered, “The first is, ‘Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one;
[30] and you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind, and with all your strength.’
[31] The second is this, ‘You shall love your neighbor as yourself.’ There is no other commandment greater than these.”
[32] And the scribe said to him, “You are right, Teacher; you have truly said that he is one, and there is no other but he;
[33] and to love him with all the heart, and with all the understanding, and with all the strength, and to love one’s neighbor as oneself, is much more than all whole burnt offerings and sacrifices.”
[34] And when Jesus saw that he answered wisely, he said to him, “You are not far from the kingdom of God.” And after that no one dared to ask him any question.

[35] And as Jesus taught in the temple, he said, “How can the scribes say that the Christ is the son of David?
[36] David himself, inspired by the Holy Spirit, declared, ‘The Lord said to my Lord,
Sit at my right hand, till I put thy enemies under thy feet.’
[37] David himself calls him Lord; so how is he his son?” And the great throng heard him gladly.

[38] And in his teaching he said, “Beware of the scribes, who like to go about in long robes, and to have salutations in the market places
[39] and the best seats in the synagogues and the places of honor at feasts,
[40] who devour widows’ houses and for a pretense make long prayers. They will receive the greater condemnation.”

[41] And he sat down opposite the treasury, and watched the multitude putting money into the treasury. Many rich people put in large sums.
[42] And a poor widow came, and put in two copper coins, which make a penny.
[43] And he called his disciples to him, and said to them, “Truly, I say to you, this poor widow has put in more than all those who are contributing to the treasury.
[44] For they all contributed out of their abundance; but she out of her poverty has put in everything she had, her whole living.”

Chapter 13

[34] “It is like a man going on a journey, when he leaves home and puts his servants in charge, each with his work, and commands the doorkeeper to be on the watch.
[35] Watch therefore—for you do not know when the master of the house will come, in the evening, or at midnight, or at cockcrow, or in the morning—
[36] lest he come suddenly and find you asleep.

[37] And what I say to you I say to all: Watch.”

Chapter 14

[1] It was now two days before the Passover and the feast of Unleavened Bread. And the chief priests and the scribes were seeking how to arrest him by stealth, and kill him;
[2] for they said, “Not during the feast, lest there be a tumult of the people.”

[10] Then Judas Iscariot, who was one of the twelve, went to the chief priests in order to betray him to them.
[11] And when they heard it they were glad, and promised to give him money. And he sought an opportunity to betray him.
[12] And on the first day of Unleavened Bread, when they sacrificed the passover lamb, his disciples said to him, “Where will you have us go and prepare for you to eat the passover?”
[13] And he sent two of his disciples, and said to them, “Go into the city, and a man carrying a jar of water will meet you; follow him,
[14] and wherever he enters, say to the householder, ‘The Teacher says, Where is my guest room, where I am to eat the passover with my disciples?’
[15] And he will show you a large upper room furnished and ready; there prepare for us.”
[16] And the disciples set out and went to the city, and found it as he had told them; and they prepared the passover.

[17] And when it was evening he came with the twelve.
[18] And as they were at table eating, Jesus said, “Truly, I say to you, one of you will betray me, one who is eating with me.”
[19] They began to be sorrowful, and to say to him one after another, “Is it I?”
[20] He said to them, “It is one of the twelve, one who is dipping bread into the dish with me.
[21] For the Son of man goes as it is written of him, but woe to that man by whom the Son of man is betrayed! It would have been better for that man if he had not been born.”

[26] And when they had sung a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives.
[27] And Jesus said to them, “You will all fall away; for it is written, ‘I will strike the shepherd, and the sheep will be scattered.’

[29] Peter said to him, “Even though they all fall away, I will not.”
[30] And Jesus said to him, “Truly, I say to you, this very night, before the cock crows twice, you will deny me three times.”
[31] But he said vehemently, “If I must die with you, I will not deny you.” And they all said the same.

[32] And they went to a place which was called Gethsemane; and he said to his disciples, “Sit here, while I pray.”
[33] And he took with him Peter and James and John, and began to be greatly distressed and troubled.
[34] And he said to them, “My soul is very sorrowful, even to death; remain here, and watch.”
[35] And going a little farther, he fell on the ground and prayed that, if it were possible, the hour might pass from him.
[36] And he said, “Abba, Father, all things are possible to thee; remove this cup from me; yet not what I will, but what thou wilt.”
[37] And he came and found them sleeping, and he said to Peter, “Simon, are you asleep? Could you not watch one hour?
[38] Watch and pray that you may not enter into temptation; the spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak.”
[39] And again he went away and prayed, saying the same words.
[40] And again he came and found them sleeping, for their eyes were very heavy; and they did not know what to answer him.
[41] And he came the third time, and said to them, “Are you still sleeping and taking your rest? It is enough; the hour has come; the Son of man is betrayed into the hands of sinners.
[42] Rise, let us be going; see, my betrayer is at hand.”
[43] And immediately, while he was still speaking, Judas came, one of the twelve, and with him a crowd with swords and clubs, from the chief priests and the scribes and the elders.

[44] Now the betrayer had given them a sign, saying, “The one I shall kiss is the man; seize him and lead him away under guard.”
[45] And when he came, he went up to him at once, and said, “Master!” And he kissed him.
[46] And they laid hands on him and seized him.
[47] But one of those who stood by drew his sword, and struck the slave of the high priest and cut off his ear.
[48] And Jesus said to them, “Have you come out as against a robber, with swords and clubs to capture me?
[49] Day after day I was with you in the temple teaching, and you did not seize me. But let the scriptures be fulfilled.”
[50] And they all forsook him, and fled.

[51] And a young man followed him, with nothing but a linen cloth about his body; and they seized him,
[52] but he left the linen cloth and ran away naked.

[53] And they led Jesus to the high priest; and all the chief priests and the elders and the scribes were assembled.
[54] And Peter had followed him at a distance, right into the courtyard of the high priest; and he was sitting with the guards, and warming himself at the fire.
[55] Now the chief priests and the whole council sought testimony against Jesus to put him to death; but they found none.
[56] For many bore false witness against him, and their witness did not agree.
[57] And some stood up and bore false witness against him, saying,
[58] “We heard him say, ‘I will destroy this temple that is made with hands, and in three days I will build another, not made with hands.'”
[59] Yet not even so did their testimony agree.

[65] And some began to spit on him, and to cover his face, and to strike him, saying to him, “Prophesy!” And the guards received him with blows.

[66] And as Peter was below in the courtyard, one of the maids of the high priest came;
[67] and seeing Peter warming himself, she looked at him, and said, “You also were with the Nazarene, Jesus.”
[68] But he denied it, saying, “I neither know nor understand what you mean.” And he went out into the gateway.
[69] And the maid saw him, and began again to say to the bystanders, “This man is one of them.”
[70] But again he denied it. And after a little while again the bystanders said to Peter, “Certainly you are one of them; for you are a Galilean.”
[71] But he began to invoke a curse on himself and to swear, “I do not know this man of whom you speak.”
[72] And immediately the cock crowed a second time. And Peter remembered how Jesus had said to him, “Before the cock crows twice, you will deny me three times.” And he broke down and wept.

Chapter 15

[1] And as soon as it was morning the chief priests, with the elders and scribes, and the whole council held a consultation; and they bound Jesus and led him away and delivered him to Pilate.
[2] And Pilate asked him, “Are you the King of the Jews?” And he answered him, “You have said so.”
[3] And the chief priests accused him of many things.
[4] And Pilate again asked him, “Have you no answer to make? See how many charges they bring against you.”
[5] But Jesus made no further answer, so that Pilate wondered.

[6] Now at the feast he used to release for them one prisoner for whom they asked.
[7] And among the rebels in prison, who had committed murder in the insurrection, there was a man called Barabbas.
[8] And the crowd came up and began to ask Pilate to do as he was wont to do for them.
[9] And he answered them, “Do you want me to release for you the King of the Jews?”
[10] For he perceived that it was out of envy that the chief priests had delivered him up.
[11] But the chief priests stirred up the crowd to have him release for them Barabbas instead.
[12] And Pilate again said to them, “Then what shall I do with the man whom you call the King of the Jews?”
[13] And they cried out again, “Crucify him.”
[14] And Pilate said to them, “Why, what evil has he done?” But they shouted all the more, “Crucify him.”
[15] So Pilate, wishing to satisfy the crowd, released for them Barabbas; and having scourged Jesus, he delivered him to be crucified.
[16] And the soldiers led him away inside the palace (that is, the praetorium); and they called together the whole battalion.

[17] And they clothed him in a purple cloak, and plaiting a crown of thorns they put it on him.
[18] And they began to salute him, “Hail, King of the Jews!”
[19] And they struck his head with a reed, and spat upon him, and they knelt down in homage to him.
[20] And when they had mocked him, they stripped him of the purple cloak, and put his own clothes on him. And they led him out to crucify him.
[21] And they compelled a passer-by, Simon of Cyrene, who was coming in from the country, the father of Alexander and Rufus, to carry his cross.

[22] And they brought him to the place called Golgotha (which means the place of a skull).
[23] And they offered him wine mingled with myrrh; but he did not take it.
[24] And they crucified him, and divided his garments among them, casting lots for them, to decide what each should take.
[25] And it was the third hour, when they crucified him.
[26] And the inscription of the charge against him read, “The King of the Jews.”
[27] And with him they crucified two robbers, one on his right and one on his left.
[29] And those who passed by derided him, wagging their heads, and saying, “Aha! You who would destroy the temple and build it in three days,
[30] save yourself, and come down from the cross!”

[34] And at the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, “Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani?” which means, “My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?”
[35] And some of the bystanders hearing it said, “Behold, he is calling Elijah.”
[36] And one ran and, filling a sponge full of vinegar, put it on a reed and gave it to him to drink, saying, “Wait, let us see whether Elijah will come to take him down.”
[37] And Jesus uttered a loud cry, and breathed his last.

Chapter 16

[Nothing. All Catholic, Stage 3..]